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He proposed a system of orbiting structures which he referred to initially as a shell designed to intercept and collect all energy produced by the Sun. His paper "Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Infra-Red Radiation", published in the journal Science , is credited with being the first to formalize the concept of the Dyson sphere. However, Dyson was not the first to advance this idea. He was inspired by the science fiction novel Star Maker ,  by Olaf Stapledon , and possibly by the works of J.
The number of craft required to obtain, transmit, and maintain a complete Dyson sphere exceeds present-day industrial capabilities. George Dvorsky has advocated the use of self-replicating robots to overcome this limitation in the relatively near term. In fictional accounts, the Dyson-sphere concept is often interpreted as an artificial hollow sphere of matter around a star.
In response to letters prompted by some papers, Dyson replied, "A solid shell or ring surrounding a star is mechanically impossible. It consists of a large number of independent constructs usually solar power satellites and space habitats orbiting in a dense formation around the star. This construction approach has advantages: components could be sized appropriately, and it can be constructed incrementally.
Disadvantages resulting from the nature of orbital mechanics would make the arrangement of the orbits of the swarm extremely complex. The simplest such arrangement is the Dyson ring , in which all such structures share the same orbit. Such a cloud of collectors would alter the light emitted by the star system see below.
A second type of Dyson sphere is the "Dyson bubble". It would be similar to a Dyson swarm, composed of many independent constructs and likewise could be constructed incrementally. Such constructs would not be in danger of collision or of eclipsing one another; they would be totally stationary with regard to the star, and independent of one another. Because the ratio of radiation pressure to the force of gravity from a star is constant regardless of the distance provided the satellite has an unobstructed line-of-sight to the surface of its star  , such satellites could also vary their distance from their central star.
The practicality of this approach is questionable with modern material science , but cannot yet be ruled out. Such a material has not yet been produced in the form of a working light sail. A single sheet of graphene , the two-dimensional form of carbon, has a density of only 0.
However, as of graphene has not been fabricated in large sheets, and it has a relatively high rate of radiation absorption, about 2. Ultra-light carbon nanotubes meshed through molecular manufacturing techniques have densities between 1.
Such a structure would, however, have a mass quite a lot less than many asteroids. Although the construction of such a massive habitable statite would be a gigantic undertaking, and the required material science behind it is early stage, there are other engineering feats and required materials proposed in other Dyson sphere variants.
In theory, if enough satellites were created and deployed around their star, they would compose a non-rigid version of the Dyson shell mentioned below. Such a shell would not suffer from the drawbacks of massive compressive pressure, nor are the mass requirements of such a shell as high as the rigid form. Such a shell would, however, have the same optical and thermal properties as the rigid form, and would be detected by searchers in a similar fashion see below.
The variant of the Dyson sphere most often depicted in fiction is the "Dyson shell": a uniform solid shell of matter around the star. Such a structure would also provide an immense surface that many envision would be used for habitation, if the surface could be made habitable. A spherical shell Dyson sphere in the Solar System with a radius of one astronomical unit , so that the interior surface would receive the same amount of sunlight as Earth does per unit solid angle , would have a surface area of approximately 2.
This would intercept the full There are several serious theoretical difficulties with the solid shell variant of the Dyson sphere:. Such a shell would have no net gravitational interaction with its englobed star see shell theorem , and could drift in relation to the central star. If such movements went uncorrected, they could eventually result in a collision between the sphere and the star—most likely with disastrous results. Such structures would need either some form of propulsion to counteract any drift, or some way to repel the surface of the sphere away from the star.
For the same reason, such a shell would have no net gravitational interaction with anything else inside it. Indeed, it can be viewed as being at the base of an infinite number of arbitrarily selected domes, but because much of the force from any one arbitrary dome is counteracted by those of another, the net force on that point is immense, but finite. No known or theorized material is strong enough to withstand this pressure, and form a rigid, static sphere around a star.
Anders Sandberg estimates that there is 1. This includes the hard-to-access cores of the gas giants; the inner planets alone provide only The heliosphere , and any protection it theoretically provides, would cease to exist. Another possibility is the "Dyson net", a web of cables strung about the star that could have power or heat collection units strung between the cables. A bubbleworld is an artificial construct that consists of a shell of living space around a sphere of hydrogen gas. The shell contains air, people, houses, furniture, etc.
The idea was conceived to answer the question, "What is the largest space colony that can be built? Theoretically, any gas giant could be enclosed in a solid shell; at a certain radius the surface gravity would be terrestrial, and energy could be provided by tapping the thermal energy of the planet.
Stellar engines are a class of hypothetical megastructures whose purpose is to extract useful energy from a star, sometimes for specific purposes. For example, Matrioshka brains extract energy for purposes of computation; Shkadov thrusters extract energy for purposes of propulsion. Some of the proposed stellar engine designs are based on the Dyson sphere. A black hole could be the power source instead of a star in order to increase the matter-to-energy conversion efficiency.
A black hole would also be smaller than a star. This would decrease communication distances that would be important for computer-based societies as those described above. Constructing such a system would make such a civilization a Type II Kardashev civilization.
The existence of such a system of collectors would alter the light emitted from the star system. Collectors would absorb and reradiate energy from the star. Given the amount of energy available per square meter at a distance of 1 AU from the Sun , it is possible to calculate that most known substances would be reradiating energy in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
SETI has adopted these assumptions in their search, looking for such "infrared heavy" spectra from solar analogs. The phenomenon raised speculation that a Dyson sphere may have been discovered. The Dyson sphere originated in fiction,   and it is a concept that has appeared often in science fiction since then. In fictional accounts, Dyson spheres are most often depicted as a Dyson shell with the gravitational and engineering difficulties of this variant noted above largely ignored.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hypothetical megastructure originally described by Freeman Dyson. See also: Energy development. Main article: Dyson spheres in popular culture. Science Fiction portal. Retrieved January 14, Dyson Bibcode : Sci Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 31 August A Dyson sphere is a theoretical mega-engineering project that encircles a star with platforms orbiting in tight formation.
It is the ultimate solution for living space and energy production, providing its creators ample surface area for habitation and the ability to capture every bit of solar radiation emanating from their central star.
Why would anyone construct such a bizarre monstrosity? According to British-American theoretical physicist Freeman Dyson, who first speculated about these putative structures in , an intelligent alien species might consider the undertaking after settling on some moons and planets in their local stellar neighborhood.
As their population increased, these extraterrestrials would start to consume ever-greater amounts of energy. By building structures at twice the Earth-sun distance, the material would be sufficient to construct a huge number of orbiting platforms 6 to 10 feet 2 to 3 meters thick, allowing the aliens to live on their star-facing surface. But after absorbing and exploiting the solar energy, the structure would eventually have to reradiate the energy or else it would build up, causing the sphere to eventually melt, according to Dyson.
Because of their infrared radiation, Dyson spheres are considered a type of technosignature — a sign of activity that distant astronomers could use to infer the existence of intelligent beings in the universe, according to a NASA report. A handful of Earth-based researchers have scanned infrared maps of the night sky in hopes of spotting Dyson spheres, but so far, nobody has seen anything out of the ordinary.
In fictional accounts, Dyson spheres are most often depicted as a Dyson shell with the gravitational and engineering difficulties of this variant noted above largely ignored. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hypothetical megastructure originally described by Freeman Dyson. See also: Energy development. Main article: Dyson spheres in popular culture. Science Fiction portal. Retrieved January 14, Dyson Bibcode : Sci Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 31 August Disturbing the Universe.
Basic Books. Some science fiction writers have wrongly given me the credit of inventing the artificial biosphere. Stockholm , Sweden. Was Dyson First?. Archived from the original on Retrieved Bibcode : IJAsB.. Dyson , J. Maddox, P. Anderson, E. Sloane Dyson Sphere FAQ. P; Hanson, G. Alan Kazlev. Archived from the original on October 7, Astronomy Today.
The Internet Encyclopedia of Science. Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing Co. Archived from the original PDF on The Economist. Fifty [galaxies] were red enough to be hosting aliens gobbling up half or more of their starlight. The Atlantic. Retrieved 13 October The Independent. Retrieved 15 October The Astrophysical Journal. Bibcode : ApJ National Geographic. Retrieved 4 January Listen to this article Space stations and habitats.
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China Chinese large modular space station. In , astronomer Tabetha Boyajian, then at Yale University, reported on the mysterious dimming of light from a star called KIC , whose irregular flickering looked like nothing researchers had ever seen before.
Other scholars suggested the weird light dips could result from a partially built Dyson sphere, and the idea caused a media sensation. For decades, Dyson spheres have been a staple of science fiction media. Whether such fanciful structures exist outside the human imagination still remains to be seen. In his conjectures, Dyson was not suggesting that all technological societies would enact this outlandish project.
Rather, some might have, he reasoned, and therefore, it would be valuable for human astronomers to search for these colossal examples of intelligent minds. Join our Space Forums to keep talking space on the latest missions, night sky and more! And if you have a news tip, correction or comment, let us know at: community space.
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